In terms of planting dates, garlic can be winter, it has larger heads, or spring, which is usually better stored. In either case, at least 100 days should pass from the moment of emergence of seedlings to harvesting. This is a common pattern in harvesting. If this period has passed, but you are not sure that the garlic is ready, you can determine the maturity by several characteristic signs.
On the arrows, if they are not removed earlier, the upper bulbs are already bursting. A thin film breaks and the bulbs (seeds) begin to spill out onto the ground.
Sometimes, to obtain larger cloves, the peduncles on the plant are cut off. In this case, it is advisable to leave 2-3 air bulbs on the seeds. From them it is easy to determine the time when to harvest the garlic.
Harvested earlier than the term is much worse stored. However, he is quite capable of ripening under conditions artificially created by experienced gardeners.
The lower leaves of ripe garlic dry completely. The root collar also dries out in the same way.
The upper leaves turn yellow and sluggish, drooping. They lose their elasticity and therefore cannot grow upwards as before.
This feature refers to specimens with dangling peduncles. If you are late with harvesting, the cloves can sprout. The shell will collapse, the crop will not be able to be stored properly due to drying out.
If you are in doubt about the readiness of the crop for harvest, dig up a few bulbs and examine carefully. A mature head of garlic should be fully formed and consist of dense cloves enclosed in a shell.
The scales are well dried, dense and hard. It is usually purple in color. If the casing is slightly damp and the teeth are soft, it is not time to clean yet.
If the head falls apart without any effort into cloves in your hands, the garlic is overripe. He urgently needs to be removed from the garden.
Harvesting is desirable in dry weather. The onion is buried in, carefully pulled out with a lump of soil.
Then the lumps must be carefully shaken off, trying not to damage the bottom, and lay the garlic to dry. Harvested carefully so as not to scratch the cloves.
The absence of damage is a guarantee of long-term storage of spring and winter garlic. In dry weather, the vegetable is left outdoors for a month. If it rains, the crop should be hidden under cover.
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It is difficult to imagine any cuisine without garlic. In middle latitudes, it is most often planted before winter - winter garlic. With this method of planting, it grows with large, evenly spaced teeth. In turn, summer garlic surpasses winter in terms of storage duration. Summer garlic (spring) is planted in early spring and harvested starting in the second half of August. But it is not enough to plant and grow a good harvest of garlic on time, it is important to keep it longer, and for this you need to know the timing, signs of ripening, the rules for harvesting and storing this popular vegetable crop.
Now let's figure out when to remove spring garlic grown in a summer cottage or a personal plot. On average in Russia, summer garlic begins to ripen after August 15 and up to September inclusive. It was at this time that you should carefully look at the garlic plantings and look for signs that indicate its ripening.
Even summer residents with experience who use the lunar calendar to determine the timing of harvesting garlic will agree that even before digging out the bulbs, it is necessary to identify the stage of maturity of the vegetable. If this is neglected, then the heads will ripen after harvesting for storage.
Here are some signs that the spring garlic is ripe:
You don't have to wait long until the leaves of spring garlic turn yellow completely, otherwise you can lose the entire crop. Overripe garlic, like an unripe vegetable, is not suitable for long-term storage.
The dates when to harvest summer garlic in different regions of the country are different and depend on the following factors:
Spring garlic is usually harvested 2-3 weeks after the winter crop is harvested. They are also guided by the yellowing of the leaves. But it will be a mistake if you wait until all the leaves turn yellow. The leaves in the center should remain green, and the lower leaves should be yellow and withered at the time of harvest.
The exact timing of when to collect garlic is determined on the spot, taking into account external changes in the plant planted before winter. Signs of vegetable maturity:
The easiest way to determine that the garlic is ripe is by the peduncles with bursting shells. But, as you know, according to the rules of agricultural technology, it is recommended to break out the arrows to obtain large bulbs.
They act as follows: flower stalks are left in 3-4 bushes in the garden, they are broken out in all others. This allows you to get seed material (bulbs) for autumn planting, as well as learn in time about the ripening of the vegetable.
It is advisable not to wait for the complete yellowing of the bushes, the lodging of the leaves on the garden bed, as this means that the vegetable is not only ripe, but already overripe. In such plants, the heads crumble, the integumentary scales burst. Overripe bulbs are poorly stored and deteriorate quickly.
It is better to remove winter garlic from the garden 3-4 days earlier than letting the vegetable overripe. If nothing can be fixed and the cleaning is too late, the teeth are sent for processing and used for food in the first place.
What are some signs that the garlic is ripe?
In order to find out the time of harvesting winter garlic, they leave several plants with arrows in the garden and observe them.
When the arrows from the intricate configuration of the loop straighten, and the box with the seeds begins to open, it means that it's time to dig out the garlic.
The garlic is not yet ready for harvest:
And now it's time to harvest the garlic:
All gardeners are concerned about when to harvest winter garlic.
Winter garlic should be harvested about 100 days after the first shoots appear. It is necessary to remove the garlic, then, when the lower leaves begin to turn yellow, the scales of the garlic should be strong by that time; when cleaning, the garlic is already easily divided into cloves.
To find out when the garlic is ready to be harvested, you need to determine which area you are in. The hotter the region, the faster the garlic ripens. In the cold it grows much longer. This is central Russia around the end of June or mid-July. I live in the Saratov region and where By the 15th of July, I dig out the garlic. It is already fully ripe, that is, the leaves, the stem dries, and if you try to dig out the garlic, then the head is covered with dense scales, you can see that it is dry. You need to dig it in dry weather so that the garlic is preserved more. You need to dig it out a little bit to ventilate it. Let it lie still under a closed canopy. Then you need to cut off the stem, roots. Leave the stem 3-5cm, and the roots 5mm. The garlic is ready for winter.
Signs: 1.leaves, stem dry, yellow, but not quite.
2. grows after germination 90-140 days, depending on the region.
3. When the box with seeds formed at the end of the arrow bursts, they will turn purple.
4. Garlic cloves separate well from each other.
5. The scallop of garlic is dense, dry, we can say that it is old.
Ripe winter garlic has “top” and “bottom” traits. I named them conventionally. They are available in addition to the calendar.
When you leave a few garlic bulbs in the garden, which you target as beacons, they are false at least to burst and show seeds. In general, this is the first and foremost sign. You can also focus on the state of withering tops, but this factor can become very subjective. It depends on the current weather, and on the condition of the soil and on watering.
Dig out one of the heads and examine it. Cut off the "tails" and greens, try peeling. The ripened garlic cloves should be loose enough to separate from each other. And peeling is easy.
For the totality of all these signs, and remove winter garlic. It seems to me that the garlic, for example, shown in the photo, is already ready for harvesting, which I did. The garlic turned out to be too small, but I live closer to the northern part of European Russia. The weather is not very garlic now, to be honest.
This vegetable keeps well. Some varieties in good condition can be stored for up to a year. Winter garlic that did not produce inflorescences is suitable for long-term storage and requires a temperature of 0-1 ° C and a relative humidity of 65-70%.
It is best to store the crop in a dry, dark room. The ideal container is a basket or drawer that allows air to circulate freely. You can also hang your crops from the ceiling by braiding the stems in pigtails or tying them in bunches.
The heads must be carefully sorted. Heads damaged by digging, suspect, are placed in a separate box, leaving them for quick use - this crop should be eaten first or used for summer canned food.
You can store unscaled garlic heads in the refrigerator, which is not a good method in the long run. At low temperatures, the vegetable loses its characteristic taste and aroma. The same applies to freezing, however, many people choose this method when you need to keep a large crop in an apartment. For freezing, the peeled heads are wrapped in aluminum foil and placed in the freezer. Such a vegetable is suitable for making fries, sauces in winter. In the freezer, you can store finely chopped garlic feathers, packaged in bags, using them later for soups, borscht.
Garlic, due to its many active ingredients, is of great importance for health, contains oils, allin and allicin. These compounds are mainly antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral. Knowing when to remove summer garlic from the garden, planted in spring or winter, planted in autumn, and how to store it correctly, you can preserve the harvest and its valuable properties for a long time.