Grain green manures are ideal for some summer residents, while for others they are not the best green manure plants. It is necessary to stop your choice on these crops only taking into account the composition of the soil on the site and the purpose of planting them. In order not to be mistaken in your choice, you need to get acquainted in more detail with the beneficial properties of each cereal green manure.
The great advantage of this plant is that it is drought tolerant. Barley can be planted in areas where rainfall is rare and will withstand any drought. This green manure is capable of renewing and improving the quality of the soil and suppressing almost all weeds of herbaceous plants.
Barley can be planted in early spring, as it can withstand air temperature drops to 5 degrees below zero, which is very common during this period.
The plant is gaining green mass very quickly. Already 30-40 days after planting, green manure can be mowed. 100 square meters of land will require about 2 kilograms of seeds.
This green manure culture is afraid of frost, although the plant is considered cold-resistant. It is recommended to plant it in spring and late summer, but taking into account the fact that even mild frosts, oats will not withstand. In the spring (in the first week of April) oats should be planted in areas that are intended for planting late-ripening crops. And the second sowing of green manure should begin after harvesting early-ripening vegetables, around August, so that before the first cold weather the oats can be mowed.
This green manure enriches the soil with potassium and is an excellent precursor for bell peppers, tomatoes and eggplants. It is these vegetable crops that most need this nutrient.
Oats grow very well in peat and acidic soils. The root system of this plant contains unique substances that are capable of destroying fungal diseases, in particular root rot and its pathogens. Sowing twice, in spring and summer, will provide the beds with significant weed protection, as oats are good at suppressing them.
One hundred square meters of the garden will require about one and a half kilograms of seeds. The green mass of green manure must be mown before active flowering.
The beneficial properties of oats include the ability to cleanse the body of toxins and toxins. For this purpose, it is recommended to eat green sprouts of this cereal green manure.
This member of the cereal family is distinguished by its rapid growth. In a short time, buckwheat grows in height by 50 centimeters, while its root system grows three times longer (almost 1.5 meters). The plant is drought-resistant, feels great in the neighborhood of berry bushes and fruit trees, does not dry out the soil.
This green manure plant is recommended to be planted in heavy and depleted soils, in areas with a high level of soil acidity. Buckwheat can grow in almost any area and save the beds from the appearance of weeds (for example, wheatgrass).
100 square meters of land will require approximately 600 grams of buckwheat seeds. Siderat is sown twice - at the end of May and at the beginning of September. Collecting green mass is carried out before flowering.
This frost-resistant crop is recommended to be sown before winter. The optimal time for planting is the last weeks of August or the first month of spring. Rye grows in a dense green carpet and does not allow other plants to develop. This applies not only to weeds on the site, but also to other crops adjacent to rye. Therefore, rye is absolutely not suitable for joint plantings. Another property of this green manure is an obstacle to the development and life of soil pests.
Any land plots are suitable for growing this cereal. Rye grows well on virgin lands, as well as on wetlands. Wet soils are preferred as rye has the ability to dry out the soil.
For every 100 square meters when sowing, about 2 kilograms of seeds are consumed. For spring planting, rye is usually mown in mid-May, so that there are still about two weeks left before planting vegetables. Rye is a good precursor for tomatoes and cucumbers, for squash and pumpkin, for eggplant and late cabbage.
Rye can also serve as a decorative decoration of the site, if you plant it along the fence.
This medicinal plant is an excellent green manure for many vegetable crops and is often used in joint plantings, as it has a large number of beneficial properties. The material aspect is also important. The seeds of this plant can be collected for free, as calendula is found in almost all city flower beds.
Green manure grows very quickly, grows green mass in large quantities, and besides, it is able to heal and improve the condition of any land plot. Calendula is a good precursor for tomatoes.
The scent of calendula flowers repels such a common pest as the Colorado potato beetle. That is why joint planting of this green manure with potatoes, zucchini and eggplants is recommended.
Seed consumption is small, only 100 grams per one hundred square meters of land. After harvesting the main harvest of early vegetables (approximately in the first weeks of August), it is already possible to sow calendula before winter. The green mass is mown approximately 40-45 days after planting.
Phacelia is a miracle green manure that has many beneficial qualities. If you cannot decide on the choice of green manure in your area, then feel free to plant phacelia. She will definitely not let you down by any indicators. Its advantages:
This green manure is most effective when sown in a mixture with legume seeds. Seed consumption is 100-200 grams per one hundred square meters of land. This unique plant can be sown in early March, during the summer season and in the fall. Mowing of green mass can be carried out in about a month and a half.
Amaranth is rarely sown as a green manure plant. More often it is used as a vegetable crop and for growing seeds. Amaranth can grow on any type of soil, but does not like excess moisture. Able to tolerate drought and almost no disease. The green manure plant can, with the help of a deep root system (almost 2 meters in length), improve the condition of the soil.
Amaranth is a thermophilic crop that is recommended to be planted in the summer or in the second half of autumn. Greens are usually mown before flowering and always before the onset of severe cold weather with frost.
Remember that when planting green manure plants on your site, the effect of their presence will be noticeable only after a few seasons.
Greenhouse in the spring. How to use green manure
The constant use of land for the cultivation of agricultural and vegetable crops severely depletes the soil. Its fertility decreases and green manure is used for this in spring. There are several ways to improve the condition of the soil for growing a rich harvest and replenish the loss of minerals and trace elements.
Planted green manure in spring helps to improve the condition of the soil and replenish the loss of micro and macro elements.
Sowing green manure makes the soil loose and increases air permeability and quick filling of the soil with moisture.
The fruitfulness of garden strawberries is determined to a large extent by the characteristics of the land in which they grow. Sideration in spring and autumn allows you to increase these characteristics and additionally increase the amount of the crop, improve its quality. Typical green manures are annuals, rarely perennials.
Botanically, crops can belong to different families, however, they have in common that all the best siderates for strawberries rapidly accumulate green mass. As a result of the use of carefully selected crops, it is possible to improve the structure of the earth and saturate it with useful substances, additionally suppressing the development of weeds.
Sideration is widely used in field cultivation, but, unfortunately, it is rarely used in garden plots. Meanwhile, this technique allows you to achieve several goals at once:
For sowing on green fertilizer, cereals and legumes are used, but the best siderates are legume-cereal mixtures. After the plants grow and develop a significant leaf apparatus, they are mowed and embedded in the soil, or simply cover the surface of the earth with them, using them as mulch. If there is no desire to mow green manure, you can simply dig up the area with them.
In the soil, green manure turns into humus - a special type of organic matter. Humus is the basis of fertility. It is the amount of humus that determines the nutritional value of the soil for plants, the water and air regime, and affects the structure. Humus is gradually mineralized, so one of the tasks of the farmer is to constantly maintain its reserves in the soil. Sideration is perfect for this. A single application of green fertilizers heals and fertilizes the soil for several years.
Green manure plants can not only be buried in the soil, but also used for composting, for preparing liquid dressings, decoctions to protect against pests and diseases of agricultural crops. They will help out if there is no way to buy humus or mineral water. The use of green manure always speaks of the high agronomic culture of the landowner. Definitely, every summer resident should introduce green manure plants into the crop rotation of his plot.
Green manure for the garden: what crops can be green manure, how and why to grow them, are they organic fertilizers when they are buried? Read the answers to these questions in our article.
Sow green manures for the vegetable garden. Siderata are cultivated plants that produce a large amount of green mass and are grown for plowing into the soil as an organic fertilizer.
This is a simple agronomic technique and one of the methods of organic farming that can really affect the structure of the soil, increase its fertility, preserve the environment, and increase the yield and quality of crops grown.
Sow green manures for the garden, as they affect many soil processes:
Siderata for the garden can be sown in three ways:
When are siderates buried? It all depends on the culture and the method of sowing it.
Winter green manures are dug up next spring, after which later crops are sown or planted (for example, potatoes).
Spring crops for the garden are plowed when the maximum green mass is reached or at the end of the season - it all depends on the type of plants. When choosing the timing of plowing, it should be borne in mind that the younger and juicier the plants, the faster the biomass decomposes.
On sandy soils, green manure is covered by fifteen centimeters, on heavy soils, they are dug a little shallower - by ten to twelve centimeters. To make it easier to dig up the soil, it is better to mow the crops. If desired, compost, peat or biowaste can be added to the green manure.
The best green manures for the garden are legumes, because the roots of these plants have nodules in which there are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are able to assimilate nitrogen from the air. The use of perennial leguminous grasses as green manure can significantly reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. Popular among gardeners are legumes such as perennial lupine, meadow clover, hybrid clover, white and yellow sweet clover.
White mustard is also a promising crop as green manure. The roots of this plant absorb nutrients well, which are inaccessible to most other plants. On soils poor in phosphorus, mustard assimilates sparingly soluble phosphates, converting them into forms available to other plants. The green mass of mustard plowed into the soil will increase the yield of not only the first, but also subsequent crops. This is the great advantage of this green manure over others.
Winter rye is also capable of harvesting nutrients that are difficult to obtain. In addition, rye is good at suppressing weeds, including wheatgrass.
White melilot reduces the number of wireworms in the soil and grain nematodes.
If, after harvesting early crops, one immediately sows narrow-leaved lupine, vetch, pelushka, white mustard or spring rape, then in late autumn the resulting biomass can already be dug up.
In the southern and central regions, immediately after harvesting late crops, you can also sow fast-growing narrow-leaved lupine, vetch, pelushka, white mustard, oil radish, spring rape. Such green manure can be plowed in late autumn.
Winter crops (winter rye, a mixture of seeds of winter rye and vetch, winter rapeseed) should be sown in early autumn after harvesting crops. Dig up such crops in the spring before sowing the main crops.
The best undercover green manure will be perennial lupine - for sowing under winter crops in late autumn, perennial lupine, meadow clover, annual ryegrass, white sweet clover - for sowing under annual grasses in early spring.
Annual leguminous herbs like green manure can be sown independently and mixed with cereals. For each region, different types of legumes will be suitable, which have different early maturity. The most popular are winter and spring vetch, peas, pelushka, narrow-leaved lupine.
Cabbage crops are used both as a stand-alone and as a catch crop. Spring rape, white mustard, yellow mustard, oil radish, rape are distinguished by faster growth and low demand for heat, frost-resistant, have a high multiplication factor. They quickly build up biomass and green manure can be plowed in mid-summer.
Annual crops are successfully grown as green manures in many climatic zones and cropping systems, as winter and spring crops. Sowing is carried out from the end of August and throughout the fall, depending on the climate. Winter green manures build up a good root biomass even before the onset of frost and from the first spring days they begin to drive greens earlier than any weed.
The biomass of cereals and other grasses contains more carbon than legumes. Due to the high carbon content, grasses decompose more slowly, resulting in more efficient humus accumulation compared to legumes. As the grasses mature, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen increases. Carbon is harder and takes longer to process by soil bacteria, and nutrients from decaying residues will not be fully available to the next crop. On the other hand, prolonged fertilization has its advantages.
The best grain and cereal green manures: barley, oats, ryegrass, rye, buckwheat.
Explanation of the tablet: PB - early spring, PL - late summer, RO - early autumn, O - autumn, W - winter, V - spring, RL - early summer. H.S. - cold-resistant, T.L. - thermophilic, H.L. - cold-loving. P - upright. Resilience: Empty circle is weak, black circle is excellent resilience.
A type: winter and spring.
Tasks: erosion prevention, weed control, removal of excess nitrates, humus restoration.
Mixes: annual legumes, ryegrass, small grains.
Barley is cheap and easy to grow green manure. Provides erosion control and weed control in semi-arid areas, on light soils. Can be included in crop rotation to protect crops and soil from burnout. Cleans saline soils. An excellent choice for restoring clogged, erosional areas, improving soil aeration. Prefers dry, cool regions.
Barley grows where any other grain does not have time to gain weight, has a greater fodder and nutritional value than oats and wheat. It has a short growing season, that is, it combines the advantages of grasses and grain green fertilizers. It stores more nitrogen than herbs. Has allelopathic substances for weed suppression. Several studies confirm that barley significantly reduces the number of leafhoppers, aphids, nematodes and other pests. Attracts beneficial predatory insects.
Growing: grows poorly on swampy soils, tolerates drought well. Grows best on loam or light clay soils, works well on light, dry, alkaline soils. There are many types of barley adapted to their climatic zone. You can sow both in winter (sowing until November) and in spring. Sowing depth from 3 to 6 cm, in moist soil. Works well in mixtures with legumes (serves as a support for them), with herbs. There is a proven oats / barley / pea blend (organic farmer Jack Lazor, Westfield, Vt). White mustard will not grow when mixed with barley, it is a strong allelopath for cruciferous plants.
Sealing: like any grain green manure, it is better to mow barley until tubules form and immediately embed it in the soil.
A type: perennial and annual grasses of the cereal family
Tasks: Prevention of erosion, drainage and improvement of soil structure, accumulation of humus, suppression of weeds, accumulation of nutrients.
Mixes: with legumes and other herbs.
A fast-growing herb that takes root almost anywhere there is sufficient moisture. Accumulates excess nitrogen, protects the soil from erosion and weeds, increases the efficiency of irrigation. Ryegrass is a good choice for the formation of a loose, fertile soil layer. It has an extensive, fine-fibered root system that quickly takes root both in rocky areas and in waterlogged soil. It grows quickly, therefore it overtakes and suppresses weeds. Ryegrass can be mowed down by providing mulch to other parts of the garden. It winters well even in the absence of a protective snow cover. Ryegrass prevents nitrogen leaching during the winter. Almost does not attract pests, but it can itself get sick with stem rust and a special kind of nematodes (Paratylenchus projectus).
Growing: Ryegrass prefers fertile, well-drained loams or sandy loam soils, but thrives on stony, poor soils. Transfers waterlogging, clay. Sowing is best done in drained soil, the first watering will provide shallow seed placement and good germination. Sow 40 days before the first hard frost. Ryegrass can be sown with nightshades when they begin to bloom. Spring sowing is carried out after the first early harvest, counting on 6-8 weeks of growing season. Severe drought does not tolerate long-term extreme temperatures on poor soils.
Sealing: ryegrass is planted during flowering, mowing does not kill this plant. Planting crops after ryegrass should be postponed for 2-3 weeks to allow overheating of its greens and begin to release nitrogen.
A type: annual cereal.
Tasks: weed control, erosion prevention, humus accumulation.
Mixes: clover, peas, vetch and other legumes and grains.
Inexpensive, good green fertilizer. Oats very quickly build up biomass, increase the productivity of legumes in green manure mixtures. Mulches gently, protects the soil from wind and water erosion. Winter oats fix nitrogen after the autumn planting of legumes, helping them to overwinter. Does not attract pests, has allelopathic properties to weeds and some crops during the decomposition of greens, so it is necessary to withstand 2-3 weeks after plowing oats before planting fruit.
Growing: oats are sown before winter in late August - early September, or 40-60 days before the first frost, but it is the least cold-resistant of all cereals. For effective germination, there must be enough moisture and not very hot, so early spring sowing is more popular with farmers than before winter. Oats can be cut down as they grow.
Sealing: oats must be embedded in the soil before the spikelet appears, cutting the root by 5-7 cm. It decomposes quickly, but a two-week break between planting and planting of crops must be observed due to the allelopathic effect of oats on salads and peas. This cereal is easier to incorporate than rye and is quicker to overheat.
A few background notes. Oats store a lot of potassium and deplete the soil, so planting should be done exactly where you grow it to make up for the loss. It is less effective in controlling weeds, pests and nitrogen fixation than cruciferous plants. Rye is better than oats, but harder to grow and incorporate. As a complementary crop for legumes, oats are the best.
A type: winter and spring.
Tasks: weed control, soil structuring, organic matter accumulation, pest control.
Mixes: with legumes and herbs.
Rye is the toughest of all grains. A plant with a strong root system that prevents leaching of nitrates. An inexpensive cereal that surpasses other cereals in yield and endurance on barren, acidic, sandy soils. Rye increases the concentration of potassium in the fertile soil layer, lifting it up from deeper layers (Eckert, DJ 1991. Chemical attributes of soils subjected to no-till cropping with rye cover crops. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 405-409 ). Performs snow-catcher function, significantly improves soil drainage, prevents wind and water erosion, even on sloping gardens. Abundant source of organic matter and straw, weed killer (78% -99% reduction in overall weed density, Teasdale, J. R. et al. 1991. Response of weeds to tillage and cover crop residue. Weed Sci. 39: 195-199). Susceptible to pests of cereals, but attracts predatory insects. Like oats, it saves swampy soils.
Growing: rye should not be sown deeper than 5 cm. Sowing begins from late August to October. Spring sowing is less practiced as it takes a lot of water to root and early vegetation. If the soil is waterlogged, rye is the best choice. Mineralization of nitrogen from rye residues is very slow, as is the decomposition of its biomass. Oats and barley do better than rye in hot regions.
Sealing: you need to mow at the root already by 30 cm of rye growth. In the fields, with the help of technology, it is possible to plow rye up to 50 cm, its green mass is tough, like the root, therefore, when manually processing it, it gives some trouble if it is allowed to grow. In some regions, rye is left between rows to protect crops from the wind.
A type: broadleaf pseudo-grain.
Tasks: live mulching, weed control, honey plant, soil formation.
Buckwheat as green manure is a fast growing crop with a short period of nitrogen decomposition and mineralization. Reaches maturity in 70-90 days. Attracts pollinators and beneficial predators, can be easily repaired. The best cereal in terms of the accumulation and mineralization of phosphorus, it has a special root excretion that allows you to transform soil minerals into a form accessible to plants. Grows in moist, cool conditions, sensitive to drought and overly compacted soil. It thrives on poor, saline soils, on land freed from forests. The famous honey plant and bait for useful predators.
Growing: buckwheat prefers light, medium, sandy loam, loam and silt soils. Grows poorly on limestone. Extreme heat leads to wilting of the plant, but buckwheat quickly recovers with short droughts. Buckwheat seeds germinate in three to five days and grow back after mowing. American farmers make a triple buckwheat crop rotation for virgin or "tired" lands and reintroduce them. Buckwheat blooms a month after planting and blooms for up to 10 weeks.
Sealing: Buckwheat should be plowed within 7-10 days of flowering so that it does not become a weed. It is worth noting that it is seeded unevenly. The buckwheat biomass decomposes quickly, after which it is immediately possible to plant cultivated plants - no allelopathic effect is observed for it. Buckwheat as a green fertilizer is three times more effective than barley in accumulating phosphorus and 10 times more effective than rye (rye is the poorest of cereals in terms of phosphorus).
The disadvantage of cereal green manures is the relatively low accumulation of nitrogen, compared to legumes. Many grasses easily become weeds that are glyphosate resistant (breeding varieties specially formulated with this resistance). If it becomes necessary to combat Roundup-resistant herbs, there is also Chlorsulfuron.
A type: annual plant
Tasks: ripper, soil former, biofumigator.
Mixes: buckwheat, creeping legumes.
Sorghum introduces a huge amount of organic matter into the soil during planting. This tall, fast-growing, thermophilic annual plant strangles weeds, suppresses some nematodes and penetrates deep soil layers. Sudanese sorghum is the best green manure after harvesting legumes, as it consumes a lot of nitrogen. The waxy foliage of Sudangrass resists drought.
Sudanese sorghum is a hybrid of two herbs, sorghum and sudangrass (Sudanese grass). Both species are independently used as green manure, but the hybrid has a couple of advantages: drought resistance and frost resistance.
It has an aggressive root system that acts as a soil aerator. Mowing strengthens and branches the root of the Sudanese grass 5-8 times! Stem thickness reaches 4 cm in diameter, height - up to 3 meters.Weeds have no chance against such green manure.
Sorghum possesses a special allelopathic substance emitted by the roots - sorgoleone, a herbicide that competes in concentration and effectiveness with synthetic herbicides. This compound begins to stand out already on the fifth day after germination. The most effective allelopathic effect of sorghum on: rope-grass, crabgrass, barnyard grass, green bristle, aphid, ragweed. It also strongly affects cultivated plants, so it is necessary to maintain the interval between plowing Sudanese grass and planting crops.
Sowing Sudanese sorghum in place of the harvested crop is a great way to disrupt the life cycle of many diseases, nematodes and other pests.
Due to the huge biomass and subsoil root system, Sudanese sorghum restores the fertility of depleted and compacted soil in a year. Sudanese sorghum is the best green manure for draining clay, moist soils on which heavy equipment has been working. This is widely used by US farmers in the northeast, where frequent rains force them to grow crops on wet soil.
Growing: Sow Sudanese sorghum preferably in warm, moist soil with a neutral pH. The optimum temperature for rapid growth is 18-20 degrees. Loves and tolerates summer heat well. The seeding depth is up to 5 cm, both in rows and in a scattered way. Seed consumption is 2 kg per one hundred square meters. Undemanding to the soil. Late sowing can be carried out 2 months before the first frost. Sowing 7 weeks before frost eliminates the need for plowing, frost-resistant varieties will vegetate to persistent frosts.
Sow legumes after sorghum-sudangrass in late summer or spring to replenish nitrogen. Grow in the spring before late crops to allow the plowed green manure to decompose. American farmers in potato and onion fields plant Sudanese grass every third year, paired with legumes to treat soil pests and renew humus. An increase in the yield of potatoes was noted. In California, the grass is planted in the aisles of the vineyards to reduce sunburn of the grapes.
Sealing: Mowing can be done at monthly intervals. The first mowing should be carried out before the creation of panicles, when the greens are juicy and easy to close - when the stem reaches a height of 80 cm. At this stage, the grass can be completely plowed. If you let the Sudanese go through the entire growing season, the grass will become stiff and it will be extremely difficult to close it up. In this case, let it overwinter - the roots should rot by 80%. If the grass is cut down, then the green mass can be used for mulching in other beds or put in compost. Mow at least 15 cm. It is noted that one mowing per season is optimal for the plant.
Sudanese grass decomposes for a long time, especially without plowing. Influence on nematodes is possible only when plowing fresh green mass that has not reached the tubule stage. For getting rid of wireworms and potato nematodes, rapeseed works better than a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid. Sorghum has its own pests, such as corn aphid.
Some hybrid varieties are not suitable for livestock feed, as they contain hydrocyanic acid.
The harvest time depends on the purpose of use and the characteristics of the crops. Properly planned harvesting will help maximize the enrichment of the land with useful substances.
Siderata can be mowed or buried in the ground. The cuttings can be used as mulch. It is necessary to plow the tops of the tops 2-3 weeks before planting cultivated plants to a depth of 7 to 15 cm, depending on the density of the soil. You can plow it up before winter, then a full-fledged humus will turn out from the green mass.